Dr Heather Xiaoquan Zhang
- Position: Senior Lecturer in Chinese social studies
- Areas of expertise: China studies; development studies, agricultural and rural development; rural-urban migration and livelihoods; urban-rural linkages; social policy and social welfare; ageing and democratic change
- Email: email@example.com
- Phone: +44(0)113 343 3497
- Location: 4.24 Michael Sadler Building
I hold an LLM from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; MSc in social science from the University of Edinburgh; and PhD in politics from Strathclyde University. I trained as a political scientist and having worked in areas of development studies and China studies, I have research interests straddling both fields. I specialise in development in China and Vietnam, as well as research methodology.
Research grants and externally funded projects:
2018-19 Inequality and poverty: Issues and policy development in the UK and China, British Academy Visiting Fellowship, Principal Investigator (PI), £21,592.50
2018-19 Inequality, poverty and social assistance in the UK & China, British Academy research dissemination and impact grant, PI, £12,000
2018-19 Social innovation and eldercare, Worldwide Universities Network Research Development Fund, CoI, £30,500
2016-17 Rural-urban migration and inclusionary urbanisation in China, British Council (Newton Fund) and National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (NSFC), PI £39,600
2013-14 Understanding homelessness in Chinese cities, British Academy, PI, £15,700
2013 – 15 Inclusionary urban development in China, a project within the EU FP7 programme Urban Knowledge Network Asia (managed by Leiden University, Holland), PI
2011 Rural-urban migration, risk and social protection in China, British Academy, PI, £6,625
2009 Worldwide Universities Network (WUN) research award
2008 Universities China Committee in London research grant
2008 Worldwide Universities Network WUN Research Mobility Award
2007 Universities China Committee in London research grant
2007 ESRC Research Methods Programme grant
2006 British Academy Overseas Conference Grant
2005 Migration, health and livelihoods in China, British Academy, Principal Investigator.
2006 Universities China Committee in London research grant
2005 Universities China Committee in London research grant
2003 Secretariat of ICAS3 conference grant
Books and Book Contributions
(forthcoming) Routledge Handbook of Rural China, London and New York: Routledge
(2015) (ed.) Rural Livelihoods in China: Political Economy in Transition, London and New York: Routledge, in the series Routledge Explorations in Development Studies. See: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415844673/
(2015) Introduction: Rural livelihood transformation and political economy in China, in Zhang, Heather Xiaoquan (ed.) Rural Livelihoods in China: Political Economy in Transition, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 1-18
(2015) Migration, risk and livelihood struggles in China, in Zhang, Heather Xiaoquan (ed.) Rural Livelihoods in China: Political Economy in Transition, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 21-47
(2015) (with Loubere) Rural finance and development in China: The state of the art and ways forward, in Zhang, Heather Xiaoquan (ed.) Rural Livelihoods in China: Political Economy in Transition, London & New York: Routledge, pp. 151-174
(2014) Chinese cities and mobile livelihoods: Migration, risk and social networks, in Wu, Fulong, Zhang, Fangzhu and Webster, Chris (eds.) Rural migrants in urban China, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 36-50
(2009) "Social Policy Programs: Overview", Encyclopedia of Modern China, Detroit, MI.: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 430-32
(2009) "Rural Development since 1978: Three Rural Issues", Encyclopedia of Modern China, Detroit, MI.: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp.316-18
(2007) (eds.) (with Wu, B. and Sanders, R.) Marginalisation in China: Perspectives on Transition and Globalisation, in the series Marginal Regions (in association with International Geographical Union - Dynamics of Marginal and Critical Regions), Aldershot : Ashgate.
(2007) (with Sanders, R.) Introduction: Marginalisation and Globalisation in Transitional China, in Zhang, H. X., Wu, B. and Sanders, R. (eds.) Marginalisation in China: Perspectives on Transition and Globalisation, pp. 1-11, Ashgate.
(2007) Conceptualising the Links: Migration, Health and Sustainable Livelihoods in China, in Zhang, H. X., Wu, B. and Sanders, R. (eds.) Marginalisation in China: Perspectives on Transition and Globalisation, pp. 195-214, Ashgate.
(2004) Gender Difference in Inheritance Rights: Observations from a Chinese Village, in Ho, Peter; Eyferth, Jacob and Vermeer, Eduard B. (eds.) Rural Development in Transitional China : the new agriculture, pp. 252-77, London : Frank Cass.
(2003) (with Kelly et al.) Migration in a transitional economy: beyond the planned and spontaneous dichotomy in Vietnam, Third International Convention of Asia Scholars (ICAS3) Abstracts of Papers, pp. 85, Singapore : National University of Singapore, 19-22 August.
(1999) Understanding Changes in Women's Status in the Context of the Recent Rural Reform in China, in West, Jackie, Zhao, Minghua, Chang, Xiangqun and Cheng, Yuan (eds.) Women of China: Economic and Social Transformation, pp. 45-66, London: Macmillan.
(2017) (with Wu, Q; Liu, C) Urban education differentiation and its socio-economic consequences: An internet–survey-based structural equation modeling analysis of new white collar workers in Nanjing, China. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Vol. 48, pp. 1-9 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2016.11.001
(2015) (with Loubere, N) Co-operative Financial Institutions and Local Development in China. Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management (JCOM). Vol. 3, pp. 32-39 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcom.2015.03.001
(2012) Protecting Mobile Livelihoods: Actors' Responses to the Emerging Health Challenges in Beijing and Tianjin, Modern China, Vol. 38 No. 4, pp. 446-478
(2012) (with McWhinney, J.) Working with the homeless: The case of non-profit organisation in Shanghai, Local Economy, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 373-387
(2010) (with Locke, C.) A Better Life? Migration, Reproduction and Wellbeing in Transition, Society, Biology and Human Affairs, Vol. 75 No. 2, pp. 51-71.
(2009) Guest Editor of Special Issue: Transforming Rural China: Beyond the Urban Bias? Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 38 No. 4.
(2006) (with Kelly, et al.) Migration in a transitional economy: beyond the planned and spontaneous dichotomy in Vietnam, Geoforum, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 1066-1081.
(2004) The Gathering Storm: AIDS Policy in China, Journal of International Development, Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 1155-1168.
(2004) (with Locke, C.) Interpreting Reproductive Rights: Institutional Responses to the Agenda in the 1990s, Public Administration and Development. Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 41-50.
(2003) Gender Difference in Inheritance Rights: Observations from a Chinese Village, The Journal of Peasant Studies, Vol. 30, Nos 3-4, April/July, pp. 252-77.
(2003) (with Lin, G.) Tackling the AIDS Challenge, China - Britain Trade Review, January, pp. 21-22.
(2002) (with Locke, C.) Contextualising Reproductive Rights Challenges: the Vietnam Situation, Women's Studies International Forum, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 443-453.
(2002) (with Lin, G.) Facing Up to the AIDS Challenge, China Review, No. 23, pp. 11-13.
(2000) (with Locke, C.) Social Analysis and Selective Inclusions in Rights-Based Approaches to Reproductive Health, Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford, Vol. XXXI, No. 1, pp. 85-100.
(1999), Female Migration and Urban Labour Markets in Tianjin, Development and Change, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 21-41.
(1997), State Policy and Women's Autonomy in Rural China, Issues & Studies, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 80-101.
Conference proceedings & book reviews
(2008) Health and social protection for rural-urban migrants: Chinese experiences and lessons for Vietnam, Proceedings of the International Conference, Trends of Urbanisation and Suburbanisation in Southeast Asia, Vol. 1, Ho Chi Minh City: Centre for Urban and Development Studies.
(2008) China Urbanizes: Consequences, Strategies and Policies, Edited by Shahid Yusuf and Tony Saich, Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2008. Book review, The China Quarterly, 195: 696-698.
(2005) Changing China: A Geographical Appraisal, Edited by Chiao-min Hsieh and Max Lu, 2004, Boulder : Westview Press, China Information, 19(1): 138-40 (book review).
Invited Speaker (pre-2007 omitted)
2019: Keynote speaker, Small farms and policy development in China, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO) Annual Conference, University of Halle (Saale), Germany, 26-28 June
2018: gave an invited talk on elderly care across the globe, the WUN grant-funded international workshop, University of Bergen, Norway, 5-7 March
2018: gave an invited talk at The Worldwide Universities Network (WUN) Think Tank Summit,“The Belt and Road” Green Development, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 22-23 March
2018: gave an invited talk at the international workshop "Mobile citizens, portable citizenship: Social and political inclusion of internal migrants", University of York, UK, 9 May
2018: gave an invited talk at the workshop “Transnational Advocacy Networks From Development Discourse to Political Spaces: Lessons from Pacific Asia and Latin America", University of Birmingham, UK, 22 June
2017: gave a seminar talk at Department of Social Ethnography, Southeast University, Chongqing, China, 20 January
2016: Invited panel speaker, the Civil Society panel, Oxford China Forum, University of Oxford, 20 February
2014: Invited seminar speaker 'Dynamics of urban poverty: A qualitative longitudinal study of poor families in two communities in Tianjin, China', Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Shanghai, 6 January
2013: Invited conference speaker 'Applying Qualitative Longitudinal Methodology to the Study of Poverty Dynamics: The Case of Dibao Households in Tianjin, China', at The Social Policy Committee of Chinese Sociological Association’s Annual Conference and the 9th International Symposium & Lectures on Social Policy, Fudan University, Shanghai 14-15 July
2013: Invited trainer/speaker 'Applying qualitative research methods in the study of poverty and social policy', Summer School on Social Policy in China, Fudan University, Shanghai 16 July
2013: Invited speaker ‘Labour market, welfare reforms and poverty dynamics in urban China’, Developing China seminars, King’s College London, UK, 27 February
2012: Invited by the think-tank Gatehouse to give a keynote at the conference ‘A Bottom-up View of China’s Future Growth’ entitled ‘Urbanisation and Labour Migration in China: A Demographic and Social Development Landscape’, London, 26 November
2012: Invited to attend the conference ‘Understanding Contemporary China: Glancing Back and Looking Forward’, Centre of Contemporary China Studies, University of Oxford. 7-8 July
2012: Invited speaker ‘Gender and migration approaches in social work in Asia: Migration, reproduction and well-being’, at the international conference ‘Gender and Migration – An Asian Dimension’, co-organised by Vietnam National University and Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung Foundation, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 24-25 May
2012: invited seminars and lectures on China’s rural-urban migration, risk and social protection in Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong Institute of Education, Chinese University of Hong Kong, February-March
2011: invited speaker, ‘Poverty dynamics and institutional change in urban Tiajin’, Tianjin Academy of Social Sciences, Tianjin, China, 7 September
2011: invited speaker, ‘From impoverishment to escaping poverty: a qualitative longitudinal study of poor families in two communities in Tianjin’, China’s 7th Social Policy Forum, organised by Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 26-28 August
2011: invited speaker, ‘Migration, risk and entrepreneurship: The case of a Hui family from Qinghai’, Qinghai Academy of Social Sciences, Xining, China, 10 August
2011: invited speaker, ‘Flexibility and eclecticism in fieldwork research – a Chinese case’, at the workshop ‘Social Sciences and Area Specialisation in Research Methods Teaching: Linking Research and Teaching Practice’, School of Interdisciplinary Area Studies, University of Oxford, 10-11 March
2010: Invited seminar speaker 'Narrating livelihoods across rural-urban spaces: Migration, risk and networks - a Chinese case', the Worldwide Universities Network Contemporary China Centre Virtual Seminar Series, 28 October
2010: Invited keynote speaker, Globalisation and Gender in Rural China, at 7th East-West Dialogue: Gender Equality and Development, Barcelona, Spain, 26-27 October.
2010: Invited speaker, Migration, risk and social protection in China, China's 6th Social Policy Conference, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, 27-29 August
2010 invited speaker, Narrating mobile livelihoods in China: Risk, agency and networks, at the international conference 'China 2020' hosted by the China Institute, University of Alberta, Canada, 8-9 July
2010: Invited discussant of the paper 'Social quality in China: Problems and prospects', at the international conference 'China 2020' at the China Institute, University of Alberta, Canada, 8-9 July
2010: Invited speaker, Risk, networks and agency: A Chinese case study, at the Networks in Chinese Society Workshop, University of Oxford, 13-14 April
2010: Invited lecture 'rural-urban migration, risk and livelihoods in China,' School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, 9 March
2010: Invited seminar speaker, Department of Politics, University of Glasgow, 8 February
2009: Invited speaker, 'A story of an entrepreneurial migrant family in China: Risk and livelihoods', at the international conference Risk and East Asia, Berlin, Germany, 20-22 November.
2009: Invited speaker at International Workshop Women Crossing Borders: International Careers in East Asian Studies, Institute of East Asian Studies, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany, 19 November.
2009: Invited seminar speaker, 'Current state of Chinese Studies and social policy research in the UK', Department of Social Security and Risk Management, College of Public Administration, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China, 4 September.
2009: Invited speaker, 'Comparison of welfare in China and the UK' at China Social Welfare Forum, organised and hosted by Centre for Social Policy Research and Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing China, 28-29 August.
2008: Invited trainer/speaker "How To Gain Access To Community And Communicate Effectively With Interviewees", at the Research and Training Workshop "Providing Social Services For Children And Community" co-organised by UNICEF and Nankai University, hosted by the Department of Social Policy and Social Work, Nankai University, Tianjin, 28-30 November.
2008: Invited to attend a roundtable discussion on Migration and Development: What Can We Learn from the Chinese Experience? Jointly organised by DFID, UNDP and Social Science Research Council, Beijing, 17 December
2008: Invited speaker, 'Health and social protection for rural-urban migrants: Chinese experiences and lessons for Vietnam', at the international conference Trends of Urbanisation and Suburbanisation in Southeast Asia, jointly organised by LPED of University of Provence, France; Research Institute for Development, France; and the Centre for Urban and Development Studies (CEFURDS), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, hosted by CEFURDS, HCMC, 9-11 December (The paper is published in the conference proceedings).
2008: Invited speaker, 'Migrants' social protection in urban China: Health and livelihoods' at the international workshop "Mobility and Health - Health Risks and Health Strategies of Rural Migrants in Urban China", co-organised by Department of Chinese Studies of Free University Berlin and Department of Anthropology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 10-11 November.
2008: Invited speaker, 'Exploring issues of protecting mobile livelihoods: Actors' responses to the emerging health challenges in Beijing and Tianjin' at the international workshop "Social problems and the local welfare mix in China: Public policies and private initiatives" jointly organised by University of Technology Sydney's China Research Centre, Scottish Centre for Chinese Social Science Research of University of Glasgow, and Department of Social Policy and Social Work of Nankai University, Tianjin, 27-30 October.
2008: Invited speaker, 'Gendering globalisation: An exploration of its implications for women in rural China', at the international conference Chinese Society and China Studies hosted by the School of Sociology, Nanjing University, China, 24-26 October (The paper is published in the Conference Proceedings).
2008: Invited seminar 'migration, health and livelihoods' at the Department of Social Policy and Social Work, Nankai University, China, 7 September
2008: invited Trainer, China in the World Postgraduate Research Summer School: 'China, Europe and the World', University of Bristol, UK, 14-18 July
2008: Invited lecture 'Migration and health in China' at the Institute of Chinese Studies, University of Cologne, Germany, 3 June
2008: Invited by the British Academy to participate in its roundtable on 'Europe and the Wider World' around the theme of 'Social Inequality', London 13 March
2008: Invited lecture 'HIV/AIDS and its development implications: The case of China', University of Reading, UK, 7 February
2007: invited speaker ' China's social policy in transition: beyond the urban-rural divide?' at the international conference -'Policy Interventions and Rural Transformations: Comparative Issues', China Agricultural University, Beijing, 10-16 September.
2007: invited Trainer/Speaker, Postgraduate Research Summer School -' China, Globalisation and Social Stratification', University of Leeds, 24-27 July.
2007: invited by the National Institute of Japanese Studies, WREAC and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science as a discussant on occupational health and risk in China at the International Symposium'Mediating Risk in East Asia', Sheffield, 1 July.
2007: invited speaker by the EastAsiaNet - a network of European research schools - on 'China's social policy in transition: new risks and institutional responses' at the international workshop' Framing Risk: Hazard Perceptions as a Crucial Factor in Imagining East Asia' hosted by the Centre for East and South-East Asian Studies, University of Lund, Sweden, 1-2 June.
My recent research thematically focuses on gender, livelihoods, urbanisation and urban-rural linkages and synergies, internal and transnational migration, poverty and inequality, health and wellbeing, population ageing and elderly care, longitudinal research and the life course approach.
SELECTED CONFERENCE ORGANISATION
2017: convening and chairing a double panel titled “New-type urbanisation” and the “13th Five-year Plan”: What do they mean for agriculture and rural development in China?” at 13th International Conference on Agriculture and Rural Development in China (ICARDC), Guangzhou 23-25 August
2017: convening and chairing a panel on Understanding Poverty and Inequality in Contemporary China at 10th International Convention of Asia Scholars (ICAS), Chiang Mai, Thailand, July 20-23
2015: convening and chairing a double panel on ‘Connecting the urban, the peri-urban and the rural: Towards an integrated approach to researching China’s urbanisation’ at 12th International Conference on Agriculture and Rural Development in China held at Nankai University, 11-13 December, Tianjin China.
2013: convening and chairing a double panel on ‘Constructing a Comprehensive Welfare System In China: Opportunities And Challenges’ at 8th International Convention of Asia Scholars (ICAS 8), University of Macau, Macau, 24-27 June
2011: convening and chairing a panel ‘Exploring the Emerging Issues and Themes in Migration and Development in China’ at 10th International Conference on Agriculture and Rural Development in China (ICARDC10), Aarhus University, Denmark, 8-10 April
2010: co-convenor of a panel (with John Hudson, Social Policy and Social Work, University of York) ‘Social Policy in China and East Asia: Perspectives on Urban-rural Integration and Comparative Welfare Systems’, China’s 6th Social Policy Conference, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, 27-29 August.
2009: Lead organiser of ICARDC9 on the theme ‘Rethinking urban-rural interactions in China's agricultural development: Beyond the urban bias?’ hosted by Department of East Asian Studies, University of Leeds with National Institute of Chinese Studies, White Rose East Asia Centre, UK, 3-5 April.
2009: Convening and chairing a panel ‘Societal Responses to Risk in China's Agricultural and Rural Development’ at ICARDC9, University of Leeds, UK 3-5 April.
2007: Organising the international symposium ‘Livelihoods, mobility and development: The Chinese experiences’, hosted by National Institute of Chinese Studies, WREAC, University of Leeds, 30 November – 1 December.
2006: Convening and chairing a panel on ‘Reassessing the Nexus between Migration and Poverty’, at ICARDC8 hosted by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS), the Netherlands, Yiwu City, Zhejiang, China, 31 August–2 September.
ASSESSOR/EVALUATOR FOR RESEARCH COUNCILS IN THE UK AND GLOBALLY
Since 2004 I have served as the assessor/evaluator of research grant proposals and end-of-project reports for ESRC, UK; UK government’s Department for International Development (DfID); the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC); the Research Grant Council (RGC) Hong Kong; British Council; The American University of Sharjah, UAE; The National Geographic Society (USA), EU Horizon 2020 Programme, etc.
REVIEWER FOR ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS
I have acted as a reviewer of book proposals and manuscripts for international organisations and leading academic publishers, including e.g. the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) in Geneva, Routledge, Polity Press, Zed Books, Ashgate, Pearson Longman, etc. and of manuscripts for academic journals, e.g. the China Quarterly, Asia Pacific Migration Journal, Culture, Health and Sexuality, Women's Studies International Forum, Modern China, International J. of Sociology and Anthropology, J. of Current Chinese Affairs, J. of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Ethnography, Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Critical Asian Studies, Habitat International, Asian Population Studies, Sustainability, Land Use Policy, etc.
EXTERNAL EXAMINATION OF TAUGHT POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES
· External examiner, MSc in Modern Chinese Studies, MPhil in Modern Chinese Studies, MPhil in Modern Chinese Art, Oxford University, 2008-2013
· External advisor in the Validation Panel for MSc in International Health, University of Cambria, UK, 2008
EXTERNAL EXAMINATION OF DOCTORAL DEGREES
Since 2005 I have acted as the external examiner of PhD thesis at University of Wageningen, The Netherlands, University of Nottingham, Liverpool John Moores University, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of Glasgow, University of York, Australian National University, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, LSE, University of Manchester, University of London, University of Oxford, King’s College London, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), etc. I have been the external examiner for a number of times in some of these universities.<h4>Research projects</h4> <p>Any research projects I'm currently working on will be listed below. Our list of all <a href="https://ahc.leeds.ac.uk/dir/research-projects">research projects</a> allows you to view and search the full list of projects in the faculty.</p>
- PhD, Strathclyde University UK
- MSc University of Edinburgh UK
- LLM Chinese Academy of Social Sciences China
- Fellow, Higher Education Academy, UK
- Fellow, Royal Geographical Society with the Institute of British Geographers (RGS/IBG), UK
- Member, Steering Committee, International Conference on Agricultural and Rural Development in China (ICARDC)
- Member, Development Studies Association UK
- Member, International Convention of Asia Scholars (ICAS) network
- Member, Women and Gender in Chinese Studies Network
I have taught courses on China's development, Chinese society, gender and family, research methodology and dissertations, as well as supervised undergraduate and postgraduate dissertations.
I am currently supervising the following PhD students:
Shiping Yu, Gender dynamics, livelihoods and women’s agency in rural China (China Scholarship Council-Leeds University PhD Scholarship)
John Harwood, Ethnic identities of Chinese migrants in Japan (Arts & Humanities Research Council PhD scholarship)
Wanyun Ying, Province-Led Region-Building in China: A Case Study of Wanjing City Belt in Anhui province (China Scholarship Council-Leeds University fully-funded PhD research Scholarship), China (China Scholarship Council-Leeds University PhD Scholarship)
Andrew Young Mook Cho, The formation of Chinese communities in Malaysia
Yu Feng, The Precarity and Living Strategies of Migrant Delivery Drivers in Shanghai, China
Lan Zang, A Study on Family Foreign Language Planning in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
I have supervised the following PhD students to successful completion:
· Kirsten Besemer, Rural livelihoods and inequality under trade liberalisation: A case study of Southern Vietnam (university scholarship)
· Caroline Fielder, A call to alms: nascent civil society and the role of faith-based organisations in China (ESRC fully-funded PhD research scholarship)
· Lewis Husain, Implementing and innovating: Local governments in the development of China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme (ESRC fully-funded PhD research scholarship)
· Nicholas Loubere, Microcredit in rural China: Implementation, livelihoods and development (University of Leeds fully-funded international research scholarship)
· Huimin Wang, Discursive and Cultural Representation of China in Mainstream American Newspapers: A Critical Perspective (China Scholarship Council-Leeds University fully-funded PhD research Scholarship)
· Shengnan Guo, Straddling two worlds: transnational migration of Chinese luoshang (裸商）
· Wenjing Jin, Wellbeing in later life: Experiences of the oldest-old people ageing in place （居家养老）in Shanghai
Research groups and institutes
- East Asian Studies